The combination of the ion implant process and the process to anneal implants is usually monitored by measuring the sheet resistance of the implanted layer. The sheet resistance varies with dose, energy, and the amount of implanted species that has become electrically active. It is the sheet resistance that ultimately determines the device performance. Thus, measuring sheet resistance is an excellent way to monitor everything associated with an implant process.
The basic idea of the JPV method is the light excitation of the np or pn layer structure, and the pick-up of the resulting junction photovoltage by a capacitive probe. The detected potential is determined by the sheet resistance of the implanted layer, capacitance of junction and resistance through over the diode.
Figure 2. Sheet resistance measurement (lower range)
Figure 3. Sheet resistance measurement (higher range)
Semilab offers JPV technology to make non-contact, high resolution fast maps of sheet resistance.
The sample is illuminated by chopped LED light, which generates electrons and holes in the substrate layer. The generated charge carriers diffuse to the junction and the electric field located in the junction separates them. The result of the separation is the change in the junction voltage. This voltage change spread laterally in the implanted layer and the attenuation depends on the sheet resistance, junction capacitance, resistance of the junction and chopping frequency of the LED.
The potential change is detected by a capacitive sensor in order to evaluate the JPV signal, as a function of the frequency of the emitted light.
Based on the evaluation, the sheet resistance (Rs), capacitance of junction (Cd) and the resistance of the diode (Rd) can be calculated.
The junction leakage current is directly connected to the Rd by the following equation:
Figure 5. The detected potential is determined by Rs, Cd, Rd and frequency